Medieval India

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The foreigners, mainly the Arabs and the Turks, who were allured by the Indian wealth and territories, took advantage of the rivalry among the Indian rulers and carried on several Taj Mahal Agra invasions of India, looted the hugebooties and destroyed numerous works of art, including the temples. However, none of them settled in India, till in 1192, a Turk invader Muhammad Ghori defeated a brave Indian Rajput ruler, Prithviraj Chauhanin the battle of Terrain and made his deputy Qutub Ud Din Aibek thein-charge of the Indian territory. The later became the ruler of Delhi after the death of his master and thus laid the foundation of the Delhi sultanate in India under the slave dynasty. Qutub Ud Din Aibek, who built the famous Qutub Minar in Delhi, a magnificent work of architecture, was succeeded by Iltutmish, the father of the first lady ruler of India. The Delhi sultanate after the Slave dynasty, witnessed the rule of the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayaids and Lodis.

I brahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty, was disliked by the people of the state and his courtiers, some of whom invited Babar, a Mughal from Kabul to replace Ibrahim Lodhi. The first battle of Panipat took place in 1526, in which Babar defeated the Lodi ruler and thus was laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty in India. But Babar's son Humayun had to face defeat from a Afghan chieftain, Sher Shah, who assumed the power in his hands for a short while and Humayun had to flee from India.

Sher Shah, who built the famous Grand Trunk road from Peshawar to Patnaand reformed Mughal Empire in Indiathe revenue system in India, had to taste a bitter defeatin the Second battle of Panipat from Akbar, the son of Humayun in 1556. Akbar( 1556-1605 CE) restored the Mughal empire in India, strengthenedit and worked a lot for the welfare of the common people irrespective of caste, creed and religion. His son, Jahangir (1605-1627 CE) and grandson Shah Jahan (1628-1648 CE) further carried on the reforms started by Akbar. The last of all the powerful Mughalm rulers, Aurangzeb (reign - 1658-1707), who was a staunch Muslim, started suppressing people of different faiths with Hindus as his main target, and despite being an efficient administrator, he became unpopular among the Indian masses. Hewas succeeded by a chain of weak rulers, who failed to hold back the glory of the Mughal empire in India.

The Art and Culture under the Mughals: The Mughals, who were greatpatron of art and culture, promoted the artists, scientists, poets, musicians and architects among many others. The Taj Mahal in Agra, the Red Fort in Delhi, Fatehpur Sikri in Agra and Agra Fort are some of themarvellous edifices raised by the Mughal emperors. The compilation of Babar Nama(Babar) and Tuzuke Jahangiri(Jahangir) further proves theirlove for the art, culture and literature.

[Ancient India, Modern India]