Who were allured by the Indian wealth and territories, took advantage of the rivalry among the Indian rulers and carried on several Taj Mahal Agra invasions of India, looted the huge booties, and destroyed numerous works of art, including the temples. However, none of them settled in India, in 1192, a Turk invader Muhammad Ghori defeated a brave Indian Rajput ruler, Prithviraj Chauhan in the battle of Terrain and made his deputy Qutub Ud Din Aibek thein-charge of the Indian territory. The later became the ruler of Delhi after the death of his master and thus laid the foundation of the Delhi sultanate in India under the slave dynasty. Qutub Ud Din Aibek, who built the famous Qutub Minar in Delhi, a magnificent work of architecture, was succeeded by Iltutmish, the father of the first lady ruler of India. The Delhi sultanate, after the Slave dynasty, witnessed the rule of the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids, and Lodis.
I Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty, was disliked by the people of the state and his courtiers, some of whom invited Babar, a Mughal from Kabul, to replace Ibrahim Lodhi. The first battle of Panipat took place in 1526, in which Babar defeated the Lodi ruler and thus laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty in India. But Babar's son Humayun had to face defeat by an Afghan chieftain, Sher Shah, who assumed the power in his hands for a short while, and Humayun had to flee India.
Sher Shah, who built the famous Grand Trunk road from Peshawar to Patna and reformed Mughal Empire in India revenue system in India, had to taste a bitter defeat in the Second battle of Panipat from Akbar, the son of Humayun in 1556. Akbar( 1556-1605 CE) restored the Mughal empire in India, strengthened and worked a lot for the welfare of the common people irrespective of caste, creed, and religion. His son, Jahangir (1605-1627 CE), and grandson Shah Jahan (1628-1648 CE), further carried on the reforms started by Akbar. The last of all the powerful Mughal rulers, Aurangzeb (reign - 1658-1707), who was a staunch Muslim, started suppressing people of different faiths with Hindus as his main target, and despite being an efficient administrator, he became unpopular among the Indian masses. He was succeeded by a chain of weak rulers who failed to hold back the glory of the Mughal empire in India.
The Art and Culture under the Mughals: The Mughals, who were great patrons of art and culture, promoted artists, scientists, poets, musicians, and architects, among many others. The Taj Mahal in Agra, the Red Fort in Delhi, Fatehpur Sikri in Agra, and Agra Fort are some of the marvelous edifices raised by the Mughal emperors. The compilation of Babar Nama(Babar) and Tuzuke Jahangiri(Jahangir) further proves their love for art, culture, and literature.
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